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APA Formatting

Page history last edited by Randall Monty 12 years ago


The reference and citation system proposed and maintained by the American Psychological Association will serve as the primary documentation format for this class. Here are some main ideas of APA formatting that are critical to understanding its objectives:


  • Written in the past tense.
  • Maintains the third person voice.

  • In-text citations are in these formats:

    • Sample: Author last name (Year), "direct quote," (p. xx).

    • Example: According to Fairclough (1993, 2010), "The boundaries and insulations between and within orders of discourse may be points of conflict and contestation," (p. 93). 

  • References are in this format: 

    • Sample: Last Name, First Initial. (Year of publication). Title of Publication. Place of publication: Publisher.

    • Example: Reynolds, N. (2004). Geographies of Writing: Inhabiting Places and Encountering Difference. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.


These are obviously just the basics, and there are nuances and idiosyncratic that you will learn as you continue through your academic careers. In the mean time, check out the Purdue University Online Writing Lab when you have questions or concerns.

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